Yasmin is a contraceptive drug used to prevent unwanted pregnancy and normalize the menstrual cycle. It belongs to the group of combined contraceptives, contains estrogens and gestagens. It is produced in small yellow tablets with a dosage of 3 mg drospirenone and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol. Yasmin is low-dose, hormonal, and monophasic medicine. It affects the viscosity of the secretion in the cervix; therefore, the sperm cannot get to the uterus. Yasmin positively affects the menstrual cycle, making it regular, less painful, and reducing bleeding intensity and duration. In addition, Yasmin reduces the appearance of acne.
Drospirenone rapidly absorbs from the gastrointestinal tract. The maximum concentration observes after 60-120 minutes because it binds to plasma proteins by albumin. It metabolizes to acidic forms due to the CYP 3A4 system. It is excreted in 2 stages through the gastrointestinal tract to a lesser extent and a greater extent by the kidneys. Half-life up to one and a half days. The concentration of the drug doubles after a week of administration.
Ethinylestradiol also absorbes from the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum concentration after 120 minutes. It has a strong bond with albumin, increases globulin that binds sex hormones. It metabolizes in the intestine and liver.
It is excreted in metabolites of the gastrointestinal tract and by the kidneys in a ratio of 6:4. The half-life is one day.
Yasmin is suitable for women over 18 years of age to prevent unwanted pregnancy, normalize menstruation, treat acne and seborrhea.
Yasmin should be taken at the same time every day. After 21 days of use, there is one week break. On average, menstrual bleeding occurs on the 3rd day of the break. After a week, you should start drinking a new pack of pills, even if the bleeding has not yet ended. If you start taking Yasmin for the first time, then you should start the course with the first day of menstrual bleeding.
It is recommended to start with 1 tablet 1 time per day for 21 days, then a break of 7 days, and again the mandatory intake of a new package.
Yasmin must not be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If pregnancy is detected while taking the drug, it is crucial to stop taking it immediately. The drug passes into breast milk and can change its taste, quality and quantity.
Women who take birth control pills have an increased risk of blood clots, leading to a life-threatening thromboembolism condition. Particularly threatening is pulmonary embolism, which requires immediate assistance. Therefore, it is prescribed by a doctor only after a thorough examination for all risk factors. Women are prone to mood swings, emotional lability, depression, headaches, nausea, and irregular bleeding. Many people begin to gain weight, their sexual desire for the opposite sex decreases, pains in the chest, abdomen, back appear, and the breasts may also enlarge. Along with this, an increase in vaginal infection, acne, vaginal dryness, fluid retention, allergic reactions, pain during intercourse, allergic reactions, hair loss, or excessive growth on the body are also noted.
There were no severe overdose cases since the drug is taken strictly according to the calendar package. Among all studies, the following side effects of Yasmin were noted: nausea, vomiting, bleeding after discontinuation of the drug.
The drug should not be taken if • Deep vein thrombosis; • Thromboembolism of blood vessels; • A history of heart attack, stroke or TIA, coronary artery disease, blood clotting disorders; • Diabetes mellitus with vascular lesions; • Arterial hypertension of 2 degrees and higher; • Liver failure; • Hypercholesterolemia; • Hepatitis C; • Renal failure; • Malignant neoplasms of the breast and uterus; • Vaginal bleeding; • Hypersensitivity to the drug. The risk group includes people: • Age over 35; • Overweight (BMI over 30 kg / m2) • Hereditary clotting diseases (thrombophilia); • Heart diseases; • Prolonged immobilization of the limbs, surgical interventions (stop taking the drug in 4 weeks, start taking it after consulting a doctor); • Systemic lupus erythematosus; • Hyperhomocysteinemia; • Sedentary lifestyle (more than 4 hours a day).
Medicines that induce liver microsomal enzymes can reduce the concentration of Yasmin and lead to uterine bleeding. After drug withdrawal, enzyme induction persists for a month. In the case of short-term therapy, it is necessary to use additional methods of contraception at the time of treatment and a month after discontinuation. If therapy is long-term, then a non-hormonal and reliable method of contraception should be chosen.
Drugs such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, barbiturates, primidone, rifampicin, St. John's wort, felbamate, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, griseofulvin reduce the effectiveness of Yasmin.
Inhibitors of HIV protease, non-nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase affect the concentration of estrogen and can both increase and decrease its level.
Itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, interspersed, macrolides, diltiazem, and grapefruit juice increase the concentration of both hormones and reduce clearance.
Yasmin increases the concentration of cyclosporine and decreases lamotrigine.
Co-administration with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and dasabuvir increases liver enzymes, particularly alanine transferase, 20 times compared with the norm in those infected with hepatitis C virus.
While taking Yasmin, it is necessary to monitor any changes in health. If the condition worsens, the patient should immediately consult with the attending physician.
It should be noted that there is a clear relationship between exacerbations and the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Moreover, the highest risk is observed in the first year of admission or if the interval of not using the drug is four weeks or more.
If there is a history of Quincke's edema, angioedema, then COCs can worsen allergy symptoms.
Yasmin affects blood glucose and insulin resistance. If the patient takes antihyperglycemic drugs, it is necessary to adjust the dosage with the attending physician.
Development of local hyperpigmentation is possible, especially if it was during pregnancy.
Acne is a skin disease caused by an inflammatory process in the sebaceous glands and, consequently, a violation of their work. Most often, seborrheic zones are affected, namely the face and upper body. The primary mechanism in the development of pathogenesis is the hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands.
The reasons that lead to the appearance of acne: transitional age, namely hormonal changes, squeezing out acne, hyperkeratosis, hyperandrogenism, poor-quality cosmetics, heat and humid climate, toxic substances, increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, excessive cleanliness, bad habits, digestive problems, stress, genetics, a large amount of sugar in the diet, as well as preservatives, flavors, Etc.
The sebaceous glands and their ducts are located in the follicle. The problem appears when the sebaceous glands get blocked. The blockage occurs with a plug, which consists of sebum and dead skin cells.
Comedones are clogged follicles that look like blackheads on the face.
Miliums are clogged follicles that look like white dots on the face.
Sebum is produced in the gland duct under the plug, and it is an excellent breeding ground for propionic bacteria. Propionic bacteria are natural inhabitants of the skin, but they usually are not capable of causing disease in a healthy person.
Adolescence is the most common cause of acne. It happens due to hormonal imbalance. Androgens are male sex hormones that women also have but in smaller amounts. They are responsible for the development of acne during the period of the sexual outburst of hormones. Hyperandrogenism leads to an increase in sebocytes in the skin, which leads to an increase in sebum production. At the same time, sebum also changes in composition. It becomes denser and more viscous.
Comedone plugs block the path of sebum. Excessive fat and waste products of the sebaceous glands lead to the multiplication and activation of the natural inhabitants of the skin - propionic bacteria. Moreover, the products of the vital activity of these bacteria themselves have an erupting effect on our skin, which causes inflammation.
Types of acne: comedones, milia, youthful acne, rosacea, medicinal acne, globular acne, cystic acne, acne of newborns.
According to the clinical picture, 4 degrees of the disease are distinguished:
• Several comedones and milia are in a limited area (forehead, chin, cheeks). The skin is normal, without swelling and inflammation. Therefore, serious treatment is not required; • Comedones, milia, and single pustular inflammations. The treatment is lengthy but always successful; • Many comedones, milia, pustular inflammations, abscesses; • Affected, inflamed areas, the surface is uneven, purple-cyanotic skin tone and soreness.
The main preventive measures to prevent acne are: • Do not touch the face with hands; • Do not squeeze pimples; • Prevention of chronic diseases; • Proper nutrition; • Drink pure water at least 2 liters per day.
There are no life-threatening complications. However, psychological discomfort and the development of complexes are provided. Areas of hyperpigmentation, post-acne, and scars can form, and in rare cases, pyogenic granulomas or acne with facial edema. Hyperpigmentation is a local darkening of skin areas against the background of a normal dermis. Post-acne is a persistent skin change that is difficult to correct and restore. Pyogenic granulomas are red nodules with a moist and crusty surface, capillaries, and an edematous stroma. Acne with edema is acne on the background of a swollen face. Scars are dense formations that result from skin repair after damage.
The recovery period from acne depends on the degree of the disease, the regimen, and diet. According to statistics, it is known that more than 85% of people suffering from acne consume a lot of sugar, flour, and fatty foods in their diet. Accordingly, the first thing you should pay attention to is the diet.
Lotion. You will need a couple of cucumbers and squeeze the juice. Brew the finely chopped dill separately in a glass of hot water for about 2 hours. Then filter, add dill broth, lemon juice, and 20 drops of alcohol. Frequent rubbing throughout the day is recommended with this lotion.
Soothing mask. You will need 50g linden honey, olive oil, and apricot pulp. Apply on the face for 30 minutes and rinse with warm water and a teaspoon of baking soda. Do it in the evening, 2-3 times a week.
Mask for drying the skin. You will need 1 tablespoon of fresh yeast, 1 tablespoon of warm water, honey 10 grams, and milk 25 grams. Apply for 20 minutes, no more than 2 times a week.
Nourishing mask for the skin. You will need finely grated potatoes, 3 grams of baking soda, beaten egg white, 20 ml of olive oil, and 1 streptocide tablet. Apply for 20 minutes and rub with lotion.
All this is very good, but only in the early stages of the disease. If the disease progresses, it is necessary to consult a specialist to determine cosmetological treatment methods and prescribe drugs.
According to statistics, in 2015, acne disease was registered in 635 million people, and these are only those who officially applied for specialized help. The number of people suffering from acne continues to grow and already ranks 8th among the most common diseases in the world. It happens due to many factors. The most significant are the following: people's nutrition, eating a lot of fast food, bad habits, environmental pollution, deteriorating water quality, increasing obesity among the population, and problems with the gallbladder, including surgical interventions on it. This rate is much lower in rural areas, confirming the beneficial effect of natural products, clean air, and water.
Usually, acne goes away by the age of 22-23. However, there are many examples of the manifestation of the disease before 30 and even 35 years. Scars and post-acne appear, reducing self-esteem, increasing anxiety disorders, depression, and even suicidal thoughts. This disease often leads to compulsive disorders in the form of popping acne and exacerbating the situation.
In order to avoid complications, experts recommend starting treatment earlier, regardless of the degree of the disease.