What do both need to know?
To begin with, both parents must be healthy, and “with a margin of safety.” So much as to be able to start the pregnancy mechanism and provide the expectant mother with safety in the process of carrying the fetus. Finally, to wait for the safe appearance of the long-awaited baby. Want a healthy child, doctors and tests are ahead .
If any of you have doubts that the decision about the child was mutually agreed, first of all, visit a family counselor. It will help you make sure that the timing for pregnancy is right and that you are prepared for the consequences. Often, a husband and wife have not yet fully recognized each other, do not realize what responsibility they will have to bear, which means they are unlikely to be able to successfully solve the psychological problems inevitable after childbirth.
“An insufficient degree of maturation and an underestimation of responsibility are equally characteristic of men and women, ” says psychotherapist Diana Genvarskaya. “I worked with couples who could not get pregnant in the absence of medical contraindications.
In 9 cases out of 10, it turned out that one of the partners did not really want a child, despite the external demonstration of such a desire.
Different periods of the relationship correspond to different levels of commitment. Before having a child, parents-to-be should recognize mutual monogamy, interact comfortably in everyday life and feel like beloved spouses. If a stage is missed, the child will only bring problems.
- The birth of a child to “cement the relationship” will be a disaster, – adds Diana Genvarskaya. – Such a marriage will surely fall apart soon. In practice, having a child always complicates the relationship between spouses. In each of them there are additional obligations, and in life there is increased physical and moral strength – the therapist says.
Many family clinics offer genetic testing services. If the family has had hereditary diseases, Down’s disease, Alzheimer’s or recurring cases of stillbirth, a genetic consultation can identify hereditary defects and assess the likelihood of having a healthy child. Such consultation is useful for all parents after 35 years of age, in whose DNA dangerous mutations can accumulate. But many medical practitioners consider such research unnecessary at the planning stage.
To the fair sex
If you missed or successfully passed the first level of tests, it’s time to check your own health. To a greater extent, this applies to the expectant mother. You need to start with a therapist. He will determine what past diseases of the parents can affect the course of pregnancy and preliminary assess the general readiness for it. You will need to do a general and biochemical blood tests, tests to determine the blood group and sugar level, a general urine test and, possibly, other tests. Be sure to get an extract from your medical record.
It is necessary to cure all minor sores, for example, a runny nose. In all women, with the onset of pregnancy, immunity decreases, since the natural mechanism of its suppression is activated. Therefore, any infection during this period is worse. For the same reason, it is worth visiting your dentist well in advance. Next, future parents are waiting for the most important doctors: a gynecologist for women and an andrologist for men.
The gynecologist collects a detailed anamnesis and , if necessary, refers to a specialized specialist. It is especially important to make sure that there are no tumor processes.
- To Unfortunately, few apparently healthy women are consulted before the child’s conception, – regrets gynecologist Vitali Antipov – about 1 in 50.
The first sensible woman wishing to become pregnant should make large-scale ultrasound from the neck and ending with the small pelvis. Breast screening should be done shortly after menstruation. A smear for cervical cytology and a bacteriological smear are required.
A woman should approach pregnancy in optimal health. Lead a correct lifestyle, get rid of bad habits. Stop smoking categorically and in advance. With alcohol, the issue is not so straightforward if taken in moderation, and not daily. One glass of wine once a week does not hurt, and in the process of gestation – says the doctor.
Here’s what women are advised on the verge of conception:
- normalize body weight and maintain it – eat as many vegetables and fruits as possible – move more, exercise, but without fanaticism – do not abuse coffee – do not use lubricants – do not go to saunas and do not take hot baths
All of these factors are important for men as well. For example, overheating of the testes is very detrimental to the activity and vitality of sperm.
The sauna must be canceled at least 3 months before the planned conception, andrologist Mikhail Ruzaev reminds that it is important for a man to get rid of excess weight.
- 200-250 minutes of physical activity during the preparatory period, as well as 400 grams per day of fruits and the same amount of vegetables will allow a man to approach conception in optimal shape. You need to give up all bad habits. By Unfortunately, only one of a hundred turns for advice in connection with the planning of the child – Ruzaev notes.
A healthy couple who has sex 2-3 times a week takes from several months to six months to conceive . Remember that doctors recommend a few days of abstinence before the final attempt. Only if a year has passed without contraceptives in this mode, and pregnancy has not occurred, can we talk about infertility. This is a serious problem: according to the WHO, about 8% of married couples face it.
The man is always the first to be tested for infertility. In women, its causes are usually more difficult to identify.
In the case of a male medical care requires much more time, says Ruza, – dealing in spermatogenesis. Its duration is 72-74 days – like several menstrual cycles. The two main tests for detecting male infertility are the Kruger spermogram (this is an important addition!) And the MAR test. It is best to do them at the same time.
A spermogram allows you to assess the number, motility and structure of sperm. The MAR test answers the question of the presence or absence of destructive antibodies to them. Premature ejaculation can also be an unfavorable factor for conception. In 15-20% of couples, immunological incompatibility occurs, but it is successfully treated with medication , says the andrologist.
If a year has gone unproductive
“ There are many reasons for infertility, ” says Natalya Petukhova , obstetrician-gynecologist and fertility specialist at the Test-Tube Children clinic. “ Most often , both family members have problems with reproductive function . The risk increases significantly with age. Deterioration of the ecological situation is of great importance. If you suspect female infertility, it is imperative to be examined by a cardiologist and endocrinologist, check the patency of the fallopian tubes, and do some other research.
There are times when you just need to pause and resume attempts later, getting rid of bad habits, primarily smoking. Nicotine not only increases cancer risks for the cervix, but also dramatically reduces the quality of eggs. A year should pass between the previous birth and the new pregnancy, and preferably two, especially in the case of a cesarean section. As a last resort, you can use assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF, ICSI , says Petukhova.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm-in- egg injection (ICSI) are the main methods of artificial conception.
- Modern medicine cures almost all cases of both female and male infertility – I am sure the doctor-embryologist Alexander Markin , who is responsible for the origin of life in a test tube.
You cannot have a child only if there are no eggs or sperm cells at all. Reproductive technologies are evolving with good results. The price of one attempt is about 200 thousand rubles.
The main thing is that there are no insoluble problems either in gynecology, or in obstetrics, or in reproductive medicine. Remember that a preliminary examination greatly reduces possible risks and, with a high degree of reliability, will make you happy parents of a healthy baby.