Types of menstrual pathology
Regular, painless and light periods indicate a girl’s hormonal health. Disruption of the cycle in adolescent girls can be the first sign of endocrine trouble, in which there is a real risk for fertility and the appearance of gynecological diseases. By contacting a pediatric gynecologist, you can prevent a lot of future female problems associated with intimate health and reproductive function.
Girls can have problems with their periods from the very beginning. From the moment of menarche, every third girl has cyclic disorders, but in 40% of them, normal age-related changes can last for a long time (6-24 months), which has a significant impact on the diagnosis of pathology. Important types of cycle disturbances are:
hypomenorrhea – a small amount of blood during menstruation;
hypermenorrhea – a large amount of menstrual blood loss;
oligomenorrhea – short critical days (less than 3 days);
polymenorrhea – prolonged periods (more than a week) or if the interval between periods is less than 21 days;
opsomenorrhea – a long cycle, when menstruation is rare (more than 35 days between spotting);
polymenorrhea – a short cycle (more than 24 days later);
metrorrhagia – chaotically coming abundant critical days;
amenorrhea – the absence of menstruation for 6 months or more;
algodismenorrhea – painful menstruation.
Causes of cyclical problems
Menstrual irregularities in girls are considered a common situation, with which they do not always turn to a teenage gynecologist. There is no need to hope for a spontaneous restoration of the cycle, especially against the background of the following provoking factors:
diseases of internal organs (liver, kidneys);
infectious pathology (frequent viral and bacterial infections);
obesity (body mass index 30 or more);
severe weight deficit;
psychogenias and stressful situations associated with problems in the family or school;
deficiency of vitamins in food;
Important factors in the onset of menstrual function are the following changes in a girl:
axillary hair growth, appearing six months before menarche;
body weight 45 kg;
height 155 cm.
Normally, the menstrual function is established within 0.5-2 years: the more pronounced the violations and the longer the time of pathological changes, the earlier and faster it is necessary to contact a specialized Clinic to a pediatric gynecologist. Timely medical and diagnostic assistance will help prevent hormonal and childbearing problems in a girl.
Symptoms of the disease
The external manifestations of cyclical problems depend on the cause of the pathological disorders and the severity of menstrual blood loss. The following factors are of great importance for diagnosis and treatment:
the age of the first menstruation;
profusion of menstruation;
regularity of the cycle;
the duration of the bloody discharge;
the presence of pain syndrome;
deterioration of the blood condition with the formation of anemia;
the presence of symptoms of endocrinopathy;
An increase in body weight (obesity) usually leads to hypermenorrhea and metrorrhagia. Severe and rapid weight loss is the reason for amenorrhea . Thyroid pathology and metabolic syndrome can provoke an acyclic menstrual cycle. Problems with the ovaries and adrenal glands will lead to oligomenorrhea and a change in the duration of the cycle. In any case, a girl may experience the following symptoms against a background of menstrual irregularities:
daily weakness and rapid onset of fatigue with minimal exertion;
decreased concentration, attention and memory, which will affect school performance;
psychological disorders in the form of irritability or depression;
constant pallor of the skin;
headaches with recurrent lightheadedness and dizziness;
unknown origin of abdominal pain.
Parents need to notice in time that the girl has health problems. Mom and her daughter need to go to a pediatric gynecologist for examination.
Basic principles of diagnosis
During the initial examination, an experienced specialist will definitely pay attention to the following manifestations:
the presence and severity of secondary sexual characteristics (hair growth, the degree of development of the mammary glands, the timbre of the voice);
external changes in the perineal region;
the structure of the internal genital organs.
In addition to the standard survey and examination, the pediatric gynecologist of the Clinic will send for the following examinations:
smears from the vulva;
basal temperature assessment;
transabdominal ultrasound scanning;
blood tests for hormones (TSH, FSH, LH, estrogens, testosterone);
blood for sugar;
general clinical analyzes – biochemical analysis, coagulogram;
detection of infections (bacterial cultures, smear tests for microbes);
consultations of specialists – endocrinologist, rheumatologist, infectious disease specialist, pediatrician, psychotherapist.
The examination scheme for each girl with a violation of the cycle is selected individually: an experienced specialist of the Clinic will determine the cause of the pathology, diagnose and help restore the menstrual cycle.
The beginning of effective therapy should be adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle. The pediatric gynecologist will advise you to follow the following rules:
full-fledged rational nutrition with the obligatory exception of spicy, fatty foods and fast food products;
with low body weight, the calorie content of food should be increased, with obesity – reduced;
daily regimen with obligatory night sleep for at least 8 hours;
moderate physical activity (morning exercises, physical education, fitness classes, swimming pool);
rejection of bad habits (it is categorically unacceptable to encourage smoking).
Often, the restoration of normal body weight leads to the establishment of the correct menstrual cycle. If necessary and according to indications, the pediatric gynecologist will prescribe the following medications:
cyclic vitamin therapy (taking certain vitamin preparations in each phase of the menstrual cycle);
a long course of soothing herbal medicines;
taking painkillers from the NSAID group;
the use of special drugs for the treatment of common diseases;
restoration of endocrine balance using hormone therapy.
The use of cyclic hormonal drugs requires constant monitoring by a doctor. It is important to accurately follow the advice of a pediatric gynecologist, using the prescribed medication in the right dosage and course duration determined by the doctor.
Possible dangerous complications
The lack of therapeutic and diagnostic correction of the disturbed cycle can become the basis for the following complications and pathological conditions:
the formation of gynecological diseases ( ovarian cysts , endometrial hyperplasia , endometriosis );
endocrine disorders (progressive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension);
decrease in fertility, up to the creation of conditions for primary infertility ;
chronic anemia with developmental delays compared to peers;
decreased immune defense;
the formation of chronic diseases of internal organs.
The future health of a woman is laid in childhood: in the absence of timely treatment of cycle disorders, a girl may have an unpleasant situation with the endocrine and reproductive systems. By contacting an experienced pediatric gynecologist at the Clinic in time, you can prevent a lot of female diseases and preserve the reproductive function of a girl suffering from menstrual problems in adolescence.